# 15.1. Data Types

Presto has a set of built-in data types, described below. Additional types can be provided by plugins.

Note

Connectors are not required to support all types. See connector documentation for details on supported types.

## Boolean

### `BOOLEAN`

This type captures boolean values `true` and `false`.

## Integer

### `TINYINT`

A 8-bit signed two’s complement integer with a minimum value of `-2^7` and a maximum value of `2^7 - 1`.

### `SMALLINT`

A 16-bit signed two’s complement integer with a minimum value of `-2^15` and a maximum value of `2^15 - 1`.

### `INTEGER`

A 32-bit signed two’s complement integer with a minimum value of `-2^31` and a maximum value of `2^31 - 1`. The name `INT` is also available for this type.

### `BIGINT`

A 64-bit signed two’s complement integer with a minimum value of `-2^63` and a maximum value of `2^63 - 1`.

## Floating-Point

### `REAL`

A real is a 32-bit inexact, variable-precision implementing the IEEE Standard 754 for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic.

### `DOUBLE`

A double is a 64-bit inexact, variable-precision implementing the IEEE Standard 754 for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic.

## Fixed-Precision

### `DECIMAL`

A fixed precision decimal number. Precision up to 38 digits is supported but performance is best up to 18 digits.

The decimal type takes two literal parameters:

• precision - total number of digits

• scale - number of digits in fractional part. Scale is optional and defaults to 0.

Example type definitions: `DECIMAL(10,3)`, `DECIMAL(20)`

Example literals: `DECIMAL '10.3'`, `DECIMAL '1234567890'`, `1.1`

Note

For compatibility reasons decimal literals without explicit type specifier (e.g. `1.2`) are treated as the values of the `DOUBLE` type by default, but this is subject to change in future releases. This behavior is controlled by:

• System wide property: `parse-decimal-literals-as-double`

• Session wide property: `parse_decimal_literals_as_double`

## String

### `VARCHAR`

Variable length character data with an optional maximum length.

Example type definitions: `varchar`, `varchar(20)`

### `CHAR`

Fixed length character data. A `CHAR` type without length specified has a default length of 1. A `CHAR(x)` value always has `x` characters. For instance, casting `dog` to `CHAR(7)` adds 4 implicit trailing spaces. Leading and trailing spaces are included in comparisons of `CHAR` values. As a result, two character values with different lengths (`CHAR(x)` and `CHAR(y)` where `x != y`) will never be equal.

Example type definitions: `char`, `char(20)`

### `VARBINARY`

Variable length binary data.

Note

Binary strings with length are not yet supported: `varbinary(n)`

### `JSON`

JSON value type, which can be a JSON object, a JSON array, a JSON number, a JSON string, `true`, `false` or `null`.

## Date and Time

### `DATE`

Calendar date (year, month, day).

Example: `DATE '2001-08-22'`

### `TIME`

Time of day (hour, minute, second, millisecond) without a time zone. Values of this type are parsed and rendered in the session time zone.

Example: `TIME '01:02:03.456'`

### `TIME WITH TIME ZONE`

Time of day (hour, minute, second, millisecond) with a time zone. Values of this type are rendered using the time zone from the value.

Example: `TIME '01:02:03.456 America/Los_Angeles'`

### `TIMESTAMP`

Instant in time that includes the date and time of day without a time zone. Values of this type are parsed and rendered in the session time zone.

Example: `TIMESTAMP '2001-08-22 03:04:05.321'`

### `TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE`

Instant in time that includes the date and time of day with a time zone. Values of this type are rendered using the time zone from the value.

Example: `TIMESTAMP '2001-08-22 03:04:05.321 America/Los_Angeles'`

### `INTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH`

Span of years and months.

Example: `INTERVAL '3' MONTH`

### `INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND`

Span of days, hours, minutes, seconds and milliseconds.

Example: `INTERVAL '2' DAY`

## Structural

### `ARRAY`

An array of the given component type.

Example: `ARRAY[1, 2, 3]`

### `MAP`

A map between the given component types.

Example: `MAP(ARRAY['foo', 'bar'], ARRAY[1, 2])`

### `ROW`

A structure made up of fields that allows mixed types. The fields may be of any SQL type.

By default, row fields are not named, but names can be assigned.

Example: `CAST(ROW(1, 2.0) AS ROW(x BIGINT, y DOUBLE))`

Named row fields are accessed with field reference operator `.`.

Example: `CAST(ROW(1, 2.0) AS ROW(x BIGINT, y DOUBLE)).x`

Named or unnamed row fields are accessed by position with the subscript operator `[]`. The position starts at `1` and must be a constant.

Example: `ROW(1, 2.0)[1]`

### `IPADDRESS`

An IP address that can represent either an IPv4 or IPv6 address. Internally, the type is a pure IPv6 address. Support for IPv4 is handled using the IPv4-mapped IPv6 address range (RFC 4291#section-2.5.5.2). When creating an `IPADDRESS`, IPv4 addresses will be mapped into that range. When formatting an `IPADDRESS`, any address within the mapped range will be formatted as an IPv4 address. Other addresses will be formatted as IPv6 using the canonical format defined in RFC 5952.

Examples: `IPADDRESS '10.0.0.1'`, `IPADDRESS '2001:db8::1'`

## UUID

### `UUID`

This type represents a UUID (Universally Unique IDentifier), also known as a GUID (Globally Unique IDentifier), using the format defined in RFC 4122.

Example: `UUID '12151fd2-7586-11e9-8f9e-2a86e4085a59'`

## HyperLogLog

Calculating the approximate distinct count can be done much more cheaply than an exact count using the HyperLogLog data sketch. See HyperLogLog Functions.

### `HyperLogLog`

A HyperLogLog sketch allows efficient computation of `approx_distinct()`. It starts as a sparse representation, switching to a dense representation when it becomes more efficient.

### `P4HyperLogLog`

A P4HyperLogLog sketch is similar to HyperLogLog, but it starts (and remains) in the dense representation.

## Quantile Digest

### `QDigest`

A quantile digest (qdigest) is a summary structure which captures the approximate distribution of data for a given input set, and can be queried to retrieve approximate quantile values from the distribution. The level of accuracy for a qdigest is tunable, allowing for more precise results at the expense of space.

A qdigest can be used to give approximate answer to queries asking for what value belongs at a certain quantile. A useful property of qdigests is that they are additive, meaning they can be merged together without losing precision.

A qdigest may be helpful whenever the partial results of `approx_percentile` can be reused. For example, one may be interested in a daily reading of the 99th percentile values that are read over the course of a week. Instead of calculating the past week of data with `approx_percentile`, `qdigest`s could be stored daily, and quickly merged to retrieve the 99th percentile value.